Guide: How to cite a Conference proceedings in lsbu-numeric style

Guide: How to cite a Conference proceedings in lsbu-numeric style

Cite A Conference proceedings in lsbu-numeric style

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Use the following template to cite a conference proceedings using the lsbu-numeric citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the lsbu-numeric style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


1  Author Surname, Author Initial. Title. In: Publication Title. City: Publisher, Year Published, p. Pages Used.  Available from: http://Website-Url [Accessed 10 October 2013]


1  Lachenmeier, D. et al. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach. Scientific Reports, 2015, 5, p. 8126. DOI: 10.1038/srep08126

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.




Many governments in Europe have favoured more restrictive policies with respect to illicit drugs than for alcohol or tobacco, on the grounds that they regard both illicit drug abuse and related problems as a significantly larger problem for society58. Drug rankings can therefore be useful to inform policy makers and the public about the relative importance of licit drugs (including prescription drugs) and illicit drugs for various types of harm58.

Our margin of exposure (MOE) results confirm previous drug rankings based on other approaches. Specifically, the results confirm that the risk of cannabis may have been overestimated in the past. At least for the endpoint of mortality, the MOE for THC/cannabis in both individual and population-based assessments would be above safety thresholds (e.g. 100 for data based on animal experiments). In contrast, the risk of alcohol may have been commonly underestimated.

Our results confirm the early study of Gable6 who found that the margin of safety (defined as therapeutic index) varied dramatically between substances. In contrast, our approach is not based on a therapeutic index, which is not necessarily associated with risk, but uses the most recent guidelines for risk assessment of chemical substances, which also takes the population-based exposure into account.

A major finding of our study is the result that the risk of drugs varies extremely, so that a logarithmic scale is needed in data presentation of MOE (e.g. Figures 1–3). Therefore, we think that previous expert-based approaches which often applied a linear scale of 0–3 or 0–1003, 9, might have led to a form of “egalitarianism”, in which the public health impact of drugs appears more similar than it is in reality (i.e. more than 10.000-fold different as shown in our results on a population basis, e.g. Fig. 2 and 3). As expected, for an individual the difference between the impact of different drugs is not as large as for the whole society (i.e. only up to 100 fold, Fig. 1).

According to the typical interpretation of MOEs derived from animal experiments, for individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the “high risk” category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the “risk” category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the “high risk” category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the “risk” category. A difference between individual and whole population MOE was confirmed by the lack of correlation between average values (linear fit: R = 0.25, p = 0.53). This result is different to the previous expert-based surveys, for which the ranking performed at the population and individual level generally led to the same ranking (R = 0.98)3. Nevertheless, we judge our results as more plausible. For an individual heavy consumer of either heroin or alcohol, the risk of dying from a heroin overdose or from alcoholic cirrhosis increased considerably in each case. However for the society as a whole, the several ten-thousands of alcohol-related deaths considerably outnumber drug overdose deaths. Hence, it is plausible that the MOE for alcohol can be lower than the one for heroin, purely because of the high exposure to alcohol in the European society (see also Rehm et al.59). [1]

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