Guide: How to cite a Artwork in MDPI style

Guide: How to cite a Artwork in MDPI style

Cite A Artwork in MDPI style

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Use the following template to cite a artwork using the MDPI citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the MDPI style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


1. Author Surname, Author Initial. Title; Gallery: City, Year Published.


1., Is Cannabis a gateway drug? (accessed Apr 27, 2015).

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.




This document has reviewed much evidence on the subject of cannabis use and theory of its potential gateway effect that leads users on to using hard drugs. This evidence predominantly seems to discredit the theory generally. The distinction between the pharmacologically-based stepping stone theory and the socially-based gateway theory is of vital importance, as they lead to different conclusions on how best to minimise hard drug usage. In summary, the evidence this document has reviewed shows that:

The modern theory of the gateway effect regarding cannabis seems to have been initiated with an unsupported and contradictory reactionary statement from a prohibition supporter.
The vast majority of cannabis users do not go on to use hard drugs.
There is no correlation between prevalence of cannabis usage and hard drug usage.
Cannabis is not usually the first drug that hard drug users have experimented with.
There is no evidence of the gateway effect occurring in other, non-western, cultures.
There is no reliable pharmacological evidence explaining how the gateway theory could be valid at this time.
Many major studies on cannabis usage have found no evidence for the stepping-stone effect, apart from social considerations.
These findings suggest that there is no cannabis-induced gateway effect. As a result of this, it seems that research, debate and drug policy should not be in any way based on the hypothesis that cannabis use leads people on to hard drugs. If real evidence surfaces in the future that there is a literal stepping-stone effect as a direct result of cannabis usage then the statement above should be reviewed, but at the present time the gateway hypothesis seems unlikely.

Seemingly more likely, however, is the social gateway theory. We have seen that:

Cannabis users are forced to enter an unregulated market where hard drugs are easily available.
When cannabis is not available, some users and dealers start using harder drugs.
The Dutch policy of making cannabis readily available under UK alcohol-like regulations and separating the markets of cannabis and hard drugs has resulted in a much lower prevalence of hard drug use than in countries such as the UK and US where the policy is primarily prohibitionist and punitive.
Several major studies have held some credence in the social gateway hypothesis as a (partial) explanation of drug progression.
The solution to the social gateway theory is to liberalise cannabis laws, perhaps at first to the current status of Dutch legislation, but furthermore to make the cannabis industry a legal, regulated and safer prospect. The success of the Dutch experiment is evident, but even there some contact into the criminal underworld is to be seen. Inherently in the issue of a gateway theory is the realisation that cannabis is at least significantly of lesser harm to the individual and to society than the potential harms of harder drug usage and abusage. Thus, policy makers should concentrate not on removing access to cannabis, but rather attempting to minimise the harm done to cannabis users (by educating them on safe ways of usage and providing clean, non-contaminated plant material), minimise the number of people who chose to move on to harder drugs, and minimise any harmful effects that this usage incurs. This, as can be seen in the real world today, is not a policy that can be successful under the current UK / US climate of prohibition. At the risk of repetition, the social gateway phenomenon, if existent, comes about because it is 'the legal status of marijuana that makes it a gateway drug' [JOY99].

Any explanation of the gateway theory which claims that cannabis intrinsically creates a desire for users to move on to other drugs seems to be a classic 'post hoc ergo propter hoc' (after this therefore because of this ) fallacy. Correlation, if present, does not indicate causation. According to [CSDP99], 'The gateway theory takes a statistical association between an extremely popular behavior (marijuana use) and an unpopular behavior, cocaine use and then implies that one causes the other. There is no evidence to this assertion…'. Even the National Center on Addiction and Substance abuse who released the oft-cited report showing potential 'evidence' for the gateway theory [CASA94], discussed earlier, readily admits that it has found no causal relationship between cannabis use and hard drug use.

As an example of the misinterpretation of evidence that leads to the creation of the gateway hypothesis, Zimmer and Morgan give the following analogy [ZIMMER97]:

'…most people who ride a motorcycle (a fairly rare activity) have ridden a bicycle (a fairly common activity). Indeed, the prevalence of motorcycle riding among people who have never ridden a bicycle is probably extremely low. However, bicycle riding does not cause motorcycle riding, and increases in the former will not lead automatically to increases in the latter. Nor will increases in marijuana use lead automatically to increases in the use of cocaine and other drugs'. [1]

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